The king said, ", The History of Alexander the Great, Being the Syriac Version, p. 153. In particular, the Qur'an parallels a Syriac legend where Alexander is portrayed as a monotheistic king who awaits the second coming of the Messiah and the end of the world.[2]. Yusuf Ali gives a detailed defense of the Alexander theory in the Appendix of his commentary on the Qur'an, including assertions that the Qur'an accurately depicts an historical account of Alexander and not a legendary one. According to Muslim scholars, Al-Kahf (The Cave) was generally revealed in Mecca, except verse 28 and verses 83-101 which were revealed in Medina. The story of Dhul-Qarnayn (in Arabic ذو القرنين, literally "The Two-Horned One", also transliterated as Zul-Qarnain or Zulqarnain) is found in the 18th Surah of the Qur'an, al-Kahf (the Cave). It is even possible that early Muslim followers heard the story of the Syrian legend during their raids on Mu'ta on the borders of Syria around September 629 CE.[4]. From the above, we have learned the following: Dhul Qarnayn had travelled to the western and eastern most parts possible He travelled to these place at the times of sunset and sunrise There, or along the way, he witnessed sunset and sunrise which appeared to … Jalal ad-Din al-Mahalli, Feras Hamza (trans.). However, the horns are extremely small and difficult to identify. [27] Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, one of the first to advance the theory of Cyrus, gives a typical justification for his rejection of Alexander by appealing to the historical man as an unrighteous polytheist: The apologist insists that the only possible connection to Alexander must be to the historical man. He visited the Oracle at Delphi and sought prophecies about his future. His story is recounted in the chapter of the Quran named "The Cave". On this basis, it is easy to agree that the historical Alexander is not portrayed in the Qur'anic story, as he does not fit the description at all. If that were the case, he could have given a one sentence answer such as "he is Alexander" or "he is Cyrus". He invited his people to Allah, but they hit him on his horn (side "The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah". This work detailed much of Alexander's personal life, desires, motivations, and other personal insights. The map below shows the part of the visual ontology for this concept. Most early Muslim commentators and scholars identified Dhul-Qarnayn as Alexander the Great, and some modern ones do too. He is portrayed as a godly and righteous man, he shows generosity to the people harassed by the Huns, and he builds a wall of iron and brass. Fortresses and walls have been built at this location probably dating back thousands of years. He said: “I am going to tell you what will happen later in the time of wrath, because the vision concerns the appointed time of the end. On his final journey, the Qur'an tells us that Dhul-Qarnayn traveled to a valley between two mountains. Tafsir al-Jalalayn, a classical Sunni tafsir of the Qur'an, composed by Jalal ad-Din al-Mahalli in 1459 CE identifies Dhul-Qarnayn as Alexander. Dhul-Qarnayn (in Arabic ذو القرنين) is a figure who was well-known in the lore of the early medieval dwellers of the Arabian Peninsula, and is mentioned in the Qur’an, the sacred scripture of Islam. "The natives of the land said, " They are the Huns." He fathered at least two sons, Alexander IV of Macedon with Roxana and Heracles of Macedon from his mistress Barsine. Dukes, 2009-2017. The Prophet said, "Yes, if the (number) of evil (persons) increased. In his second book, "The Wars of the Jews", he further details that these people are held behind a wall of iron that has been built by Alexander the Great. As regards Gog and Magog, it has been nearly established that they were the wild tribes of Central Asia who were known by different names: Tartars, Mongols, Huns and Scythians, who 'had been making inroads on settled kingdoms and empires from very ancient times. Therefore, they must be using the Alexander legend as their source for the "right" answer. This writing dates to the second half of the 1st century. In other words, he cannot represent Alexander the Great: "That man was neither godly, nor righteous, nor generous towards subjected nations; moreover, he did not build a wall", Modern Muslim Koran Interpretation: (1880 - 1960), p. 32. In order to determine the answer to those questions, we must look at scholarly works that date both the Qur'anic account, the Syriac legend, and prior Alexander folklore. // Predicate logic relations for the ontology concept dhul-qarnayn. In his comments on Derbent, Yusuf Ali mentions, that "there is no iron gate there now, but there was one in the seventh century, when the Chinese traveler Hiouen Tsiang saw it on his journey to India. After establishing this fact, we must now determine the dependency between the two stories. [20] Again, if this gate is the same as the one in the Qur'anic story then the apologist must admit that the revelation of the gate holding back Gog and Magog must have failed since they did not rampage over the nations nor bring about judgement day. Thus, he was called "Dhul-Qarnain" . The Syriac apocalypse, "De Fine Munid" composed between 640 CE and 683 CE and the "Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius" composed around 692 CE. Based on this information, some apologists have constructed alternative theories to the identity of Dhul-Qarnayn. The wall is 195 km (121 mi) long and interspersed with forts. In this context, it is assumed that everyone at the time is familiar with this person, but they are asking Muhammad for details of Dhul-Qarnayn's deeds. [21], Alexander the Great was a polytheist who believed in the pantheon of Greek gods, the dominant religious belief at the time of the 4th century BCE in Macedon Greece and throughout most of the Mediterranean. pp. Imitation coins were issued by an Arab ruler named Abi'el who ruled in the south-eastern region of the Arabian Peninsula and other minting of these coins occurred throughout Arabia for another thousand years.

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